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Classification of leathe
There are various methods of classifying leather, and many categories, and the common classification methods are as follows:
A, according to the classification of animal species
Cow leather includes yellow cow leather, buffalo leather, yak leather, etc.
Cow leather are thicker, generally can be dissected into several layers, the first layer of leather can be made into grain leather, suede, embossed leather, special effect leather, etc., cowhide is mainly used in the manufacture of bags, shoes, leather clothing, etc..
Sheep leather including goat leather, sheep leather, etc.
Goat leather in fat content is less, fiber organization than sheep leather full, clear grain, leather elasticity solid and durable. Mainly used for clothing, women's leather shoes and bags.
Sheep leather is light and thin, soft and smooth, with small pores evenly distributed in a flat circle, mainly used for clothing, shoes and bags also have a small amount of use.
Pig leather pores round and coarse, a group of three in a zigzag arrangement, good breathability, folding and wear resistance, poor elasticity. Mainly used for shoes, sofas and low-grade leather clothing.
4, horse leather
Horse leather leather is meticulous and soft, pores royal oval arrangement, more regular, firmness than cowhide. Mainly used for making large bags.
5, special animal leather
Special animal leather mainly has crocodile skin, ostrich skin, python skin, lizard skin, etc., they grow slowly, extremely difficult to breed, the number is rare, are very valuable raw materials supplies.
Second, according to the processing weight classification
Light leather is mainly chrome tanned leather, sold by area. Light leather is generally dyed leather, with smaller thickness and lighter quality. Common light leather includes upper leather, lining leather, leather roller leather, leather ring leather, ball leather and so on.
Heavy leather is mostly vegetable tanned leather, which is sold by weight in commercial. Heavy leather is generally not dyed and has heavy texture. The common ones are sole leather, bagging leather, wheel belt leather, inner sole leather, etc.
C. Classified by the use of leather
1、Garment leather: including garment leather, glove leather, etc.
2、Shoe leather: upper leather, insole leather, along the strip leather, etc.
3、Luggage leather: leather bag leather, money clip leather, etc.
4、Sofa leather: all kinds of sofa leather, seat leather, etc.
5、Upholstery leather: saddle leather, strap leather.
6、Ball leather: including soccer leather, blue ball leather, volleyball leather, etc.
7、Industrial leather: including wheel and belt leather, instrument leather, sealing leather, etc.
8、Other leather: musical instrument leather, wiping leather, waterproof leather, etc.
Four, according to the leather tanning method classification
1、Chrome tanned leather: leather made by metal chromium compound as the main ingredient of tanning agent. It is mostly used in the processing of high-grade leather (such as: aniline leather).
2、Aluminum tanned leather: the leather made by using the compound of inscription metal aluminum as the main ingredient of tanning agent. Mostly used in the processing of high-grade glossy leather.
3、vegetable tanned leather: leather made by using plants (such as: wattle skin, prune, etc.) as the main ingredient of tanning agent. It is mostly used in the processing of fur and brushed leather.
4、Oil tanned leather: leather made with mineral oil as the main ingredient of tanning agent. It is mostly used in the production of some heavy leather and low-grade leather.
5、Aldehyde-tanned leather: leather made by formaldehyde (formalin) as the main ingredient of tanning agent. It is mostly used in the processing of low-grade glossy leather.
V. Classification according to grain surface
1、Full grain leather
Full grain leather is the leather which retains and uses the original surface of animal skin (the side of growing hair or scale), also called frontal leather. The grain surface layer of the finished leather is kept intact, and most of the grain surface is decorated, and the pores and grain characteristics of the animal skin can be seen clearly.
Half-grain leather is the leather that needs to be lightly ground and trimmed when there is residue on the surface of the leather, half-grain leather is processed and lightly ground to only half of the grain surface during the production process, so it is called half-grain leather.
It is also called "glossy leather", also called matte leather, bright leather. Use leather grinding machine to lightly grind the surface of leather and then finish it, and use embossing machine to press the corresponding leather pattern in the process of finishing. Internally, it is a facelift for the leather surface with more injuries or rough surface.
Reverse leather, also called reverse leather, is usually the leather made by using the reverse side of animal skin for finishing, or without any finishing (such as suede leather), often refers to the leather of fur.
5、Suede leather (frosted leather)
Suede refers to the use of animal skin front or reverse side, by mechanical grinding and pile, in the leather surface shape skin layer thin and dense suede, after dyeing and finishing become suede products.
Brushed leather is also a kind of suede, from the surface effect of the finished leather, it not only retains part of the grain pattern, but also has a detailed and uniform suede effect. The tumbled leather is also a kind of suede.
Six, according to the coating method
Aniline leather is a kind of full-grain leather which is colored with dye and has thin and transparent coating layer. Initially, aniline dye is used, so it is named aniline leather. Through the coating of leather can clearly see the grain surface and bottom coating, highlighting the characteristics of leather, called aniline effect. Because the surface of the leather is colored with dyes only, but not with covering coating, this kind of leather is made of casein or transparent resin for surface finishing, so it is not possible to make benzine dyed leather if there are too many scars and scrapes when selecting the leather body because it is not covering. This kind of leather has natural delicate grain, more show the beauty of leather, mostly used in high-grade leather shoes, leather clothing production.
Note:Blackening in water is the distinctive feature of aniline leather.
Semi-aniline leather refers to some very shallow residue on the surface of blank leather, in order to cover the residue and keep the natural state of leather, the surface is pressed with corresponding grain and then lightly coated. It forms a semi-covering layer, so that the pores on the surface of the leather are visible.
Semi-aniline leather is characterized by its visible grain pattern, good handfeel and breathability, and slight color change when exposed to water.
The glossy leather can be divided into the following types according to the different finishing methods.
The painted leather is also called pigmented leather, most of the original leather has many problems when there is no surface decoration, such as rough pores, bumpy skin surface, scars and so on. To turn it into a leather with use value, it has to be beautified with various craft techniques, flattening and finishing with pigment paste, dyes and film-forming agents. The finishing can give special optical effect to the leather, and this kind of restoration and finishing leather is called the finishing leather.
Pigmented leather is characterized by poor clarity of grain, or existence of artificial grain, poor softness and breathability of hand, but good waterproof effect, easy to maintain and not easy to damage.
Oil wax leather is also called "chameleon", the color of this kind of leather will become lighter when you scratch it with your nail or open it with your hand. But after the hand caress and back to normal, its characteristics are oil feeling sticky, coating coloring raw materials with color changing grease and metal complex dyes. This leather has both aniline effect and skin discoloration effect. It has strong resistance to moisture, and the leather is shiny and weak, with good handfeel.
Waxing leather is to put the leather on some synthetic wax and then polish it on the cloth wheel, which can produce the effect of discoloration burnishing.
Polished leather is a traditional leather treatment in which casein is used as the surface finish and then the glass roller of the polishing machine is used to polish the surface of the leather to produce a natural shiny leather surface to produce an elegant transparent luster.
The traditional lacquered embossed leather finish is a very labor-intensive method that uses hot linseed oil to apply the finish, also called hot lacquered leather embossed finish. The current lacquer leather production uses the cold lacquer leather embossing finishing method, which involves applying a very thick layer of polyurethane brightener on top of a pigment paste resin base to get a high gloss top coat. The breathability and softness of this kind of leather is very poor.
Metallic pearl leather
Metal pearlescent powder or metal pearlescent color paste is mixed with resin and sprayed on the surface of leather to form a special leather with metal pearlescent effect. It gives out golden luster under the light irradiation. This kind of leather generally has poor fastness of coating layer.
The leather surface is sprayed with dark brown or bronze color, and after the medium coating is dry, then the leather is sprayed with another color of color paste irregularly, and the dark pattern is formed to reflect the antique effect of two colors, and then it is polished to make the leather surface look like an old feeling.
There are single-color embossing and two-color embossing. Two-color embossed leather is the half-formed leather after medium coating, which is pressed into fixed pattern through machinery, and then made into two colors by using the concave and convex pattern, and then do the cover decoration. Such as: lychee pattern, ostrich pattern, crocodile pattern, etc.
Color changing phantom leather
Use special dyes to make graphics or patterns on the surface of the leather, and under the sunlight, it will change into colorful and splendid.
More uncommon kinds, not to be discussed here ......
Seven, chemical leather
Artificial leather is made of textile as the base, and a layer of coating material is evenly applied on the base, and the cloth base cloth filament head can be observed from the cross section. The shape is regular, the surface is free of wounds, the pattern is consistent, and the texture is even.
Synthetic leather is artificial leather products made of sea island microfiber, commonly known as super leather, imitation deerskin, which is artificial leather without grain surface. It is synthetic fiber, which is compound and mixed chemical fiber. Its fiber is basically the same diameter as the protein fiber in natural leather. Therefore, the imitation leather products made of sea island microfiber feel good, have certain elasticity and fullness, and even exceed deerskin in many aspects such as strength, breathability, color fastness and washability.
Regenerated leather is the leather offcuts grinding into fine material, plus the adhesive and then pressed synthesis, so burned up with the burnt smell of leather, from the cross-section also has a similar leather fiber layer, but from the surface, although the pressed leather pattern, but also will not create the shape of the leather surface depth of the pores and toughness. The shape is regular, the surface is not scarred, the pattern is consistent, the texture is uniform, can do repeated retouching, normal oiling maintenance can be.